Scientific Analytical Calorimeter Solutions

CAL3K Bomb Vessels

CAL4K-4 Thread Type Bomb Vessel Diagram

The sensors are embedded in the vessel walls. The electronics are located in the bottom of the vessel and are vacuum encapsulated to prevent any liquid or dust from affecting the temperature measurement. The temperature is measured with platinum sensors, which are near linear, and the readings are linearised to become absolute linear. This is a major advantage as the vessel can be fired at any temperature and remains perfectly calibrated. The temperature measuring range is 5 to 70 Celsius. A typical determination rises the vessel temperature by approximately 10C.

The temperature sensors are stable at a working resolution of 0.000001°C or 1 part per million. To put this into some kind of perspective: it is very little. The electronics in the vessel consume a constant of about 0.04Watts, which is automatically corrected for. Because the electronics work at the same temperature as the vessel the overall temperature (rise) accuracy is in the range of 10ppm (0.00001).

What does all this mean in real terms?

The theoretical electronic accuracy related to 26Kj/g is 0.0003Kj/g. Of course, this is not the accuracy you can expect on the final result, which is subject to moisture, sample preparation, sample consistency, weighing and operator procedure, and a lot of other influences. Basically, the CAL4K_4 vessel can be used for extremely accurate results, but is limited by its use.

The vessel tests itself every time it is inserted into the bomb well. The results are reported back to the calorimeter for storage and displaying. The vessel electronics are tested three times in the factory - after assembly, then after 24 hours oven burn-in, and then finally after packaging. All the times are recorded in the vessel memory together with such information as: Customer, Assigned Serial Number.

Vessel testing happens every time it is inserted into the bomb well. The results are stored and reported back to the calorimeter. This is amazing. Each vessel has its own statistics, from o-ring count, firing wire change, misfires, maximum temperatures and the test results.

Another great benefit will be the machine assembled vessel control card (the "brain"). Improved quality and reliability. The vessel electronics are now tested three times in the factory - after assembly, then after 24 hours oven burn-in, and then finally after packaging. All the times are recorded in the vessel memory together with such information as : Manufacturer, Dealer/ Agent , Customer, Assigned Serial Number.


The CAL3K 4K-4 Thread Type Vessel is compatible with the following oxygen calorimeter systems :

Feature Description
Reduced Thermal Mass Thermal mass reduced by approx. 50% gives more resolution and is easier to handle.
Screw (Thread) Cap Aluminium Lid Screw (Thread) Cap aluminium lid for fast opening and closing
Improved Resolution Greatly improved temperature resolution of 1ppm gives improved accuracy.
Reduced Interference Greatly reduces noise interference of <10ppm gives very stable results.
Improved Self-Testing Improved factory, field and self testing
Operational History Vessel operation history available
Calibration History It holds the history of up to 70 calibrations
Linear Temperature Sensing Very linear temperature sensing allows two determination without cooling
Improved Parameters Improved setup parameters and temperature calibration
Calibration Fields 7 Calibration Fields
Average Calibrations Maximum of 10 calibrations per field
Temperature Recording Maximum Temperature Recording
Limit Settings Inspection warning and limit settings
Inspection Records Inspection Records
Safety Feature Vessel will not fill with oxygen if the lid is not properly sealed

Animal Feed Research
Animal Feed Research

Food calories are measured in KJ/g, the same as combustible calories. However, the process is different, although the outcome is the same : KJ/g or heat, or calories. Animal feed stock relies on the animal digestion (conversion). A calorimeter burns the lot and measures the released heat. Then a calorimeter can't be used to measure feed stock?

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Coal Analysis
Coal & Coke Analysis

The coal industry is the traditional application of calorimeters because coal has a variety of properties, apart from being black. If the coal is used for steam generation then the calorific value is of paramount importance. The calorific value, short CV, is a measure of how much heat can be extracted from it.

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Explosives Analysis
Explosives Analysis

Only explosives which can be ignited by heat from the calorimeter's firing circuit can be tested in the oxygen calorimeter. Then very minute/small quantities are used for analysis. The calorific value of an explosive is not very high, but the burning speed is.

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Fuel Analysis
Fuel Analysis

As a general rule, volatile fuels are measured very seldom because they are very consistent. However, if the fuel absorbs water, then frequent analysis is called for. Volatile fuel such as alcohol must be prevented from evaporating during the handling process that is from weighing to ignition of the sample.

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Nutrition / Food Analysis
Food & Nutrition Analysis

Here is an example of food calories from As the article says : "The method of using a combustion calorimeter to measure food calories is not frequently used today. However, after some considerations it can, and is, used today for checking the production quality of food." Let's look at the details.

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Oil Analysis
Oil Analysis

Oils are a non-volatile substance. In general they are not measured frequently because they are very consistent and uniform. Other oil properties are more important than the calorific value, such as taste or viscosity. If an oil is measured in an oxygen calorimeter, then the procedure would be the same as a solid substance.

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Universities Research Analysis

Simple, we at Digital Data Systems (DDS) have been making calorimeters for the last 40 years. We have a wealth of technical knowledge and calorimeter experience second to none. We are continuously improving our systems with the latest technology as it becomes available, allowing the students to work on a cost effective, easy to use...

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Waste Product Analysis
Waste Product Analysis

Heating energy is being dumped on our municipal landfill sites. Our landfill sites are being clogged by plastic waste, which battle to bio-degrade over time. Alternative options for managing plastic waste has been identified as mechanical recycling, cement kilns, power station and energy recovery by incineration. Having plastic on landfill sties should be the last option.

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